the longest river in Uganda, major rivers in Uganda
A country’s water resources are a vital asset that contributes significantly to the development of socio-economics and the eradication of poverty. This resource, however, is spatially and temporally unevenly distributed. Direct rainfall, a recent variability, is the main source of water for these resources and threatens the distribution and availability of Uganda’s water. The annual rainfall in Uganda varies from 500 mm to 2800 mm, and in two main seasons an average of 1180 mm. A network of large rivers and lakes that have great potential for development has been generated by the spatial distribution of rainfall. Rivers are the most essential freshwater resource to man. Social, economic, and political development has been largely related to the presence, adequacy, and distribution of freshwater constrained in the riverine system. A river is any natural stream of water that flows in a channel with characterized banks. Current utilization incorporates streams that are multi-channelled, discontinuous, or fleeting in streams and channels that are bankless.
The major uses of river water are as summarized as follows; sources of drinking water, providing water for irrigation of agricultural lands, industrial and municipal water supplies and waste disposal, navigation purposes, fishing, boating, and body contact recreational activities, and aesthetic value. Usage of water in rivers in Kampala is a way that the upstream use of water is done in such a way that it doesn’t affect water quality or water quantity for those downstream of the river. Therefore, river water usage is subject to major political negotiations at all levels. Furthermore, the management of river water needs high-quality scientific information on quality and quantity under control. Therefore, the provision of this type of information needs a network of river monitoring stations so that they establish short-term and long-term fluctuations in water quantity about basin characteristics and climate, determine water quality criteria needed to optimize and maintain water usage and determine seasonally, short term and long term trends in water quantity and quality about demographic changes, water use changes, and management interventions for purposes of water quality protection.
River water resources in Uganda.
Ugandan rivers include;
- the Nile River,
- kazinga channel,
- Lamia, Lugogo,
- and Malaba.
Rivers have two types of flows namely laminar flow and turbulent flow. Laminar flow is a type of streamlined flow of water where individual clay and other fine particles move along evenly in a generally parallel path. Natural rivers in Uganda have laminar flow stretches only when water is deep and the river channel has a smooth surface. Turbulent flows occur when the channel of the river is rough, and small eddies occur due to friction between the streamflow, channel sides, and river bed.
Water in rivers is replenished through the hydrological cycle. Rivers are fed by precipitation, direct overland rivers, springs, and drains, or meltwater on the banks of snowfields and glaciers. Direct rainfall contributes usually only minutes to the water surface, except when a great deal of the catchment area is occupied by lakes. River losses are caused by draining and percolating into shallow or deep aquifers (permeable layers of rock that readily transmit water) and especially by evaporation. The difference between the input of water and loss sustains the flux or flux of the surface. However, water is constantly cycled by the ice, soil, lakes, water supply (in part), and river canals. River discharge to the oceans provides the equivalent of water vapours blown overland and subsequently precipitated in the rain or snow i.e., some 7% of worldwide average annual rainfall and some 30% of land precipitation. Rock debris is either eroded in a rocky channel or dissolved as part of fluvial systems. The solids undergo systematic changes of size and shape during the transit downstream, travelling as bed loads or suspensions. In general, the sea reaches a little or no coarse bed charge except in higher latitudes and on steep coasts. Solid load movement down the river valley is irregular both because it is irregular in the streamflow as well as due to the possibility to enter temporary storage of the conveyed material forming distinguishing rivers, middle river bars, dot-bars, water-fills, levees, river terraces, and floodplains. In one-way, geomorphic characteristics belong to the same series of deltas, estuary fills, and land sediments in many inland water reservoirs.
Characteristics of rivers in Uganda.
When water is not found in a subterranean aquifer, streams or rivers form by draining from the soil or spilling into the river or stream bed over the surface. Water is constantly moving in streams and rivers. The speed of the water depends on its slope, size, and shape, the quantity of water supplied and the quantity of water supplied. As the river and stream travel by river, it forms its channel by pushing rock spots and losing prying pieces, sand, gravel, and rocks to the banks and dissolving into the flowing water-rock materials such as calcareous stone. Rivers and streams shaped human history by supplying drinking water, food, irrigation, and transport.
Flows and rivers Downstream Flow
The water is constantly on the move in rivers and streams. With a steep gradient, it moves quickly; a high volume of water passes through a small river or river bed, and it also passes quickly. Although the average moving water speed is around 5 to 6 kilometres an hour (a quick walk for humans), the speed during floods can reach up to 31 kilometres an hour. Water is moving most quickly in the middle and outside the curve, where it is carving below the banks.
Challenges facing rivers today.
Not accessible in enough volume, pollution of the river water, load of riverside sludge, seasonal water flow unevenly, river water conflicts among states, shrinking channels because of the extension to the hallway of the settlements. The majority of cremation grounds lie along the banks of the rivers, sometimes throwing dead bodies into the rivers. The flowers and the statues are immersed in the rivers during certain festivals. Wide bathing and clothing washing pollute the water of the river as well.