The following are the challenges facing the sector:
Institution alignment of non -formal education training.
The amorphous structure of non-formal BTVET (Business, Vocational Education and Training) aggravates the coordination and management problems resulting in increased transactional costs within the sector
Inadequate budgetary resources
There are no adequate resources to meet current and emerging priorities: Public funding to higher education has also been declining overtime. A lot of pressure is being put on the existing old facilities in public universities resulting into poor quality of service delivery
Capacity gaps in education
Teaching methods are old fashioned and books are not only inadequate but those that are available are not always used effectively. For example at primary and sometimes secondary levels many students leave school without having mastered required levels of literacy and numeracy.
Social and cultural practices
Attitudes and perceptions affect the performance of the sector. Although the cost factor appears to be the most important for boys, girls drop out of school due to teenage pregnancy, sexual harassment and early marriages while for boys indifference to education is a key factor. In addition, a significant number of girls help with household chores. There is limited access to education for marginalized groups including children with disabilities and those in post conflict areas
Inadequate physical infrastructure
The schools lack scholastic materials, classroom blocks, water and sanitation, and power supply
Inadequate sports facilities and equipment.
The schools do not have the resources to buy the sports equipment and maintain playing grounds
There has been a remarkable change in the sector over the past years, especially since the inception of the Universal Education Programmes and liberalisation of the sector. More schools, institutions, colleges and universities have been established by the private sector; and enrolments in all these institutions have exponentially increased. The private sector participation in the education sector has also been remarkable to the extent that education is increasingly being seen as an export sector.